The solution is a unique homogeneous mixture formed from two or more substances in relative amounts that can vary continuously up to the solubility limit. The particle size of the solution is less than 1 nm, and the components of the solutions seem to be in a single phase.
The solution is composed of two or more substances. The substance dissolved in another substance is referred to as a solute. In contrast, a solvent is a substance that dissolves another substance to form a solution.
A solute is a substance that dissolves in a solvent. The amount of solute in a solution is always less than the amount of solvent. A solute can be of three types, .i.e solid, liquid and gaseous solute. For example, salt is a solute in salt water, while water is a solvent.
A solvent is a substance dissolved in another substance to form a solution. The amount of solvent in a solution is always more than the amount of solute. It is of four types .i.e polar, non-polar, protic and aprotic solvent.
Types of solvent
- Polar solvent: A polar solvent is a kind of solvent having a sizable partial charge or dipole moment. A polar solvent dissolves polar compounds and ions. Examples: acetone, dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and methanol.
- Non-polar solvent: A non-polar solvent has zero dipole moment. They have a minor electronegativity difference, or we can also say that the bond between the atoms has almost equal electronegativity. Examples: benzene, toluene and xylene.
- Protic solvent: A protic solvent is a solvent that has a proton (H+) bound to fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. Examples: water and ethanol.
- Aprotic solvent: An aprotic solvent does not have a proton (H+) bound to fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. Examples: benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulphide.
Difference between Solute and Solvent
Solute and solvent are the two components of the solution. The primary difference between solute and solvent is that a solute is added to a solvent to form a solution. Solute and solvent are the two components of the solution. Solute vs solvent is tabulated below.
|Definition||A solute is a substance dissolved in a solvent.||A solvent is a substance dissolved in another substance to form a solution.|
|Quantity||The amount of solute in a solution is always less than the amount of solvent.||The amount of solvent in a solution is always more than the amount of solute.|
|Boiling Point||The boiling point of the solute is more than the solvent.||The boiling point of the solvent is less than the solute.|
|Solubility||The solubility of the solute is determined by its surface area and molecular size.||The solubility of the solvent is determined by its polarity.|
|Physical State||It exists in a solid, liquid, or gaseous state.||It exists primarily in the liquid form but can be gaseous too.|
|Heat Transfer||Heat is transferred to the solute in a solution.||Heat is moved from the liquid to the solution.|
|Example||For example, salt is a solute in salt water, while water is a solvent.||For example, water is a solvent in salt water, while salt is a solute.|